Africa, Analysis, Side Feature

Q&A: The Conflict in Sudan Between the Army and the Rapid Support Forces is Focused on Specific Areas

It is observed in the last two months, October and November 2023, that the conflict between the [Sudan] army and the Rapid Support Forces, each of them is focusing on specific areas. The army focuses on Khartoum and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) on Darfur. The conflict in other regions is a secondary conflict linked to these two regions, as happened with the RSF attack on 15/12/2023 on Wad Madani, the capital of Al Jazirah, when the army’s pressure on them intensified in Khartoum. Does this herald a new division in Sudan, separating Darfur for the RSF just as South Sudan was separated? Thank you.

To get a clear answer, we will review the following matters:

First: We stated in the Answer to Question of 25/4/2023 (“Sudden violent clashes erupted on Saturday,15/4/2023, between the army and the Rapid Support Forces, which represent a new blow to hopes for the transfer of power to civilians, i.e. the pro-British civilian forces” …) and we explained that there are three possibilities that America wants from this war among its agents:

* A new agreement was concluded between its agents, Al-Burhan and Hemedti… and then it pushes back the framework agreement with the powers affiliated with the Europeans.

* If it is not possible to push back the pro-European forces, then America does not care about dividing Sudan as it did in the south, so it will leave Darfur to Hemedti…

* If these forces (affiliated with the Europeans) line up behind one of America’s agents as a matter of maneuver… then America will ask this agent to retreat and the other to take control…

Second: In light of this, we review the developments in order to arrive at the most likely opinion regarding the outcome of the situation:

1- Since that date, 15/4/2023, the conflict and what is related to it, including the declaration of truces, the resumption of clashes, negotiations, and communications, have all become confined between the two parties affiliated with America: The Army leadership and the Rapid Support Forces leadership, under the supervision of America and its Saudi agent, which plays the role of implementing American dictates. So, the so-called Jeddah platform was formed to manage this conflict. Muhammad Hamdan Dagalo “Hemedti” confirmed his compliance with American dictates, saying: [“He is in contact with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken to prevent the escalation of the war.” (Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, 2/5/2023)]. Thus, America was able to keep Britain and its agent, the Emirates, out of playing a role in the conflict management and related matters. There was what was called the Quartet, consisting of America and its agent, Saudi Arabia, and Britain and its agent, the Emirates. America also made the conflict between its agents Al-Burhan and Hemedti in order to eliminate the role of the political opposition formed by British agents in the Forces of Freedom and Change and others.

2- That is why the Sudanese army delegation in Addis Ababa did not participate in the summit because it was headed by Kenyan President William Ruto, who is affiliated with Britain. [Addis Ababa hosts the Intergovernmental Authority for Development in East Africa (IGAD) summit to discuss the Sudanese crisis… The Sudanese army delegation, despite its presence in Addis Ababa, did not participate in the summit sessions in protest against Kenya’s presidency of the Quartet. (Sky News Arabia, 10/7/2023)]. Ruto, the Kenyan president, had proposed sending peace forces from abroad to Sudan, as well as involving the Forces of Freedom and Change under the name of civil forces before they fade away and weaken completely, as the fighting between the American agents Al-Burhan and Hemedti has paralyzed their movement and thinking. Al-Burhan expresses support for American-Saudi mediation and rejects British mediation and intervention through its agent, the Kenyan president, or others. Lieutenant General Yasser Al-Atta pointed this out, addressing his soldiers (“Any foreign peace forces are enemy forces.” He threatened Kenya, saying: “Leave the East African forces in their place… (you want) to bring the Kenyan army, Come.” He swore that no one would return of these forces, “safely to their country.” He stated that “a third country, without naming it, was the one that pushed Kenya to put forward this initiative.” (Reuters, 24/7/2023). By the third country, he means Britain. Kenya’s Foreign Minister Sing Aoi rejected the Sudanese military officer’s statement, he said: “The accusations are baseless,” he also said, “Permanent peace will only be achieved through the involvement of civilian parties in any mediation process.”

3- Thus, Al-Burhan was reassured that the internal situation was proceeding according to the American plan drawn up, so he began his foreign visits for the first time since the outbreak of fighting between the army and the Rapid Support Forces. He left Khartoum for Port Sudan to use it as the center of his movements. On 30/8/2023 he made his first foreign visit to Egypt, this visit is considered a confirmation of the Egyptian regime’s support for the army and Al-Burhan at this stage. The Cairo News Channel published statements by Al-Burhan during his visit, in which he said: (We intended “from the visit” to put the Egyptian leadership in the right picture, and to inform it of the developments in the situation), both Al-Sisi and Al-Burhan are American men. Other visits followed… It appears that Al-Burhan is seeking to imbue legitimacy as a permanent president of the state of Sudan with all powers, and not the head of a temporary sovereign council.

4- The conflict will not be resolved quickly, and it may also take some time, because the intention is to limit the conflict between the two sides of America there: The Army Command and the Rapid Support Command, and the outcome of the conflict is controlled by America by dividing the roles between them, to keep the opposition loyal to Britain and Europe paralyzed as it has been since the conflict erupted in mid-April 2023, and then to weaken it to a minimum. To clarify this, we explain the following:

a- On 21/11/2023, the Rapid Support Forces seized the city of El Daein, the capital of East Darfur State. They also seized the headquarters of the Army Command of the 20th Division there without a fight when the Army forces withdrew from it under the pretext of avoiding the danger of confrontations between them and harm to civilians! The Rapid Support Forces claimed in a statement: [“Their victories open a wide door to true peace… and that the state of East Darfur, along with El Daein, will remain safe under its protection.” (Al Jazeera, 22/11/2023)].

Note that El Daein is the stronghold of the Rizeigat tribe, to which Dagalo belongs, the commander of the Rapid Support Forces and most of his commanders and members. Before that, these forces seized the city of Nyala, the capital of South Darfur State, the city of Zalingei, the capital of Central Darfur State, and the city of El Geneina, the capital of West Darfur State. It only remains for them to seize the city of El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur State and the political and administrative capital of the Darfur region. If the RSF capture El Fasher, it would have directed a devastating blow to the pro-English and European movements, especially the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement. These two movements had taken a neutral position in the conflict, knowing that this conflict was artificial between American agents, the Army Command and the Rapid Support Command.

b- This is what made the armed movements in the region sense the danger, and they are the movements that signed the Juba Peace Agreement for Sudan – Darfur Track. This made them announce in a press conference on 16/11/2023 (their departure from the position of “neutrality” and their standing against what they called “the project to fragment the country and its division,” which was carried out by “the Rapid Support Militia and its other foreign militias and mercenaries.” It also announced its participation in military operations on all fronts “without the slightest hesitation.” (French newspaper Le Monde, November 16). These movements were determined to defend El Fasher, otherwise it will disappear… especially since the city of El Fasher occupies a strategic location, as its borders are connected to the borders of Libya, Chad, and the western cities of the Darfur region, it is considered the capital of the opposition armed movements that signed the Juba Peace Agreement, reconciled with the regime, and participated in the government. Reports indicate that it withdrew the majority of the capital of those belonging to the Zaghawa tribe from Omdurman to it. Seizing El Fasher would ignite strife between the Arab tribes that support the Rapid Support Forces and the Zaghawa tribe that supports the armed movements.

c- As for the army leadership – Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, in addition to the army’s control over northern and eastern Sudan, the army’s recent and strong campaigns inside Khartoum indicate a trend towards resolving military matters in Khartoum over time in favour of the army [the Sudanese army launched a series of attacks, air strikes, and artillery bombing operations on Rapid Support Forces sites and gatherings in and around the capital, which included the vicinity of the Armoured Corps, the central market, the vicinity of the Sports City, Al Arada Street, the vicinity of the radio and television in Omdurman, and sites in Khartoum North. (Independent Arabia, 24/11/2023)], and this means that the army wants decisiveness and to be the stronger party in these areas.

d- On 10/12/2023, IGAD held an extraordinary meeting of its leaders in Djibouti, which is chairing its current session, with broad participation from representatives of the African Union, the United Nations, and neighbouring countries of Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the Emirates, the United States of America, and Britain. [The Chairman of the Sudanese Sovereignty Council, Lieutenant-General Al-Burhan, participated in the summit’s work after he was absent from the previous summit, which was held less than two months after the start of the bloody war. The Commander of the Rapid Support Forces, Lieutenant-General Daglo, also discussed with the Summit Chairman, President of Djibouti, Ismail Ismail Guelleh via phone, its results and the vision of Rapid Support to resolve the crisis. According to the final statement, IGAD leaders were able to convince Al-Burhan and Hemedti to meet directly, in addition to committing to an immediate and unconditional ceasefire. According to informed sources who told the BBC, the regional organization set a maximum period of two weeks for the meeting to be held in Addis Ababa. (BBC, 10/12/2023)].

5- Reviewing the above, it becomes clear that there are three striking aspects that have happened recently:

First: is the quick Rapid Support Forces control over most of Darfur, only El Fasher remained, and the state’s lack of serious resistance to their control… This was evident in the control of the RSF over the 20th Division of the army, which is stationed in the city of El Daein, as well as the 16th Division in Nyala – South Darfur.

Second: the recent strong army campaigns inside Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North, described above [the Sudanese army launched a series of attacks, air strikes, and artillery shelling operations on RSF gatherings in the capital. etc. (Independent Arabia, 24/11/2023)]. The RSF felt pressure on it in Khartoum, so it headed to Wad Madani to relieve the pressure, and the conflict intensified there. [For the fourth day in a row, battles continued today, Monday, between the Sudanese army and the Rapid Support Forces east of the city of Wad Madani, the capital of Al-Jazira State in the center of the country. The official spokesman for the Sudanese Armed Forces, Nabil Abdullah, reassured the citizens that the situation in the city of Wad Madani is stable. (Al-Arabiya, 18/12/2023)] and before that [the American embassy urged, in a statement at dawn on Sunday, the Rapid Support Forces to “immediately stop their advance in Al-Jazira State and refrain from attacking Wad Madani.” (Al-Arabiya, 17/12/2023)], which confirms the embassy’s influence on the combatants!

Third: Al-Burhan’s attendance at the recent IGAD summit [The Chairman of the Sovereignty Council, Lieutenant-General Al-Burhan, participated in the summit’s work after he was absent from the previous summit, which was held less than two months after the start of the bloody war. The Commander of the Rapid Support Forces, Lieutenant General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also discussed with the Chairman of the Summit, President of Djibouti, Ismail Guelleh, via phone, its results and the Rapid Support’s vision for resolving the crisis. (BBC Arabic, 10/12/2023)].

All of this shows that America is preparing the atmosphere for division. However, despite the fact that the danger of division becomes present with all these actions in Sudan, and that this division is also on the lips of the Americans: [The United States representative to the United Nations, Linda Thomas Greenfield, confirmed that she stands by Sudan in its current crisis in order to deliver aid to defenseless civilians there, she remarked when addressing the conference “the immediate focus must be on protecting civilians, providing humanitarian assistance to those in dire need, and negotiating an end to the conflict. (USUN; Independent Arabia, 20/11/2023)], despite all that, it is unlikely that America today is following the partition plan, but is only preparing the atmosphere for it when America’s interests require it.

6- Therefore, what is most likely, according to current situations, is that the Darfur region will not be separated from Sudan now, but that the RSF will head a strong political opposition against the regime, and will work to contain or eliminate the political opposition loyal to Britain and the Europeans under its leadership. Therefore, the RSF becomes the main party in the Sudanese political opposition instead of the other current political forces. It appears that things are moving towards this… the RSF headed to Darfur in front of the army, becoming the main opposition in the country. Perhaps America in Sudan will have two wings: a political wing of the RSF, but with weapons, to lead the opposition, and a military wing of the army… so that the two wings will serve America’s interests. As for why the RSF opposition is not demilitarized, this is most likely due to two reasons:

The first: to contain the European opposition, which is made up of British agents, because eliminating it politically is not easy, but rather it has to be done militarily.

The second: The Rapid Support Forces in Darfur becomes a political opposition with an armed force, so that if America’s interest requires another secession after South Sudan, it will bring to effect this secession in Darfur. It seems that the time has not come for this secession, but preparing the atmosphere for it is currently underway.

7- This fighting is what America and its agents are working for now… and this is what they are preparing the atmosphere for, if it continues towards a new division. O our people in Sudan, especially the army and the fighters. How can you fight among yourselves for the benefit of the colonialist kuffar? You kill yourselves, destroy your homes, and violate your sanctities?! How can you forget the words of the Messenger of Allah (saw) which is narrated by Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Al-Ahnaf ibn Qays, who said: For I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say:

«إذَا الْتَقَى الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَالْقَاتِلُ وَالْمَقْتُولُ فِي النَّارِ» قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، هَذَا الْقَاتِلُ، فَمَا بَالُ الْمَقْتُولِ؟ قَالَ: «إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَرِيصاً عَلَى قَتْلِ صَاحِبِهِ»

“If two Muslims meet with their swords, then the killer and the one being killed are in the Hellfire.” I said: O Messenger of Allah, this is the killer, so what about the one who is killed? He said: “He was keen to kill his opponent”?!

So, what if this fighting is in the interest of America and its agents?! It is therefore more wretched and more bitter.

O our People in the Sudan of the great Islam… The Sudan of Dongola Mosque, the first mosque built by the first Muslims in Sudan… The Sudan of the great Islamic conquest during the era of Caliph Othman, may Allah be pleased with him, where he ordered the governor of Egypt to bring the light of Islam to Sudan, so he sent the soldiers of Islam led by Abdullah Ibn Abi Al-Sarh, and the conquest took place in the year 31 AH. And so Islam spread rapidly, with Allah’s favour, until it filled all of Sudan: from its north to its south and from its east to its west… Then it continued during the era of the Muslim caliphs… until the fighting (Mujahid) Sudan has been fighting against the British since the year 1896 until the middle of World War I, in 1916, when the strong, pious hero, Ali bin Dinar, the governor of Darfur, was martyred, that scholar and Mujahid who was credited with repairing the meeqat of Medinah and the people of Ash-Sham, Dhul-Hulaifa, and constructing wells of water for the pilgrims, which are called after him to this day, Abyar Ali.

Thus, direct English colonialism remained in Sudan for sixty years. Since the English aggression in 1896 CE until 1956 CE, and after that came indirect political and cultural colonialism, the spread of rotten capitalist values, and the struggle of old and new colonialism, England and America, over Sudan. Until Sudan the good pure country ended up with its body torn apart, and its south is separated from its north by the false and deadly Naivasha Agreement, under the sponsorship of colonial America. And now America is preparing the atmosphere for a new division when its interest requires it!

O People of Sudan: Hizb ut Tahrir, the leader who does not lie to his people, calls on you to do your best to stop this fighting between members of the army and members of the Rapid Support Forces, as they are your sons, brothers, relatives, neighbours, or acquaintances… and you undoubtedly hear and see the tragedy of this fighting… so remedy the matter before regrets becomes of no use.

[إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لِمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ]

“Indeed in that is a reminder for whoever has a heart or who listens while he is present [in mind]” [Qaf: 37]

6 Jumada Al-Akhira 1445 AH – 19/12/2023 CE