For the Blessed month of Ramadhan, Khilafah.com has replicated a number of chapters from the book – The Essential Elements of the Islamic Disposition (Nafsiyah) issued by Hizb ut Tahrir and published in Beirut, Lebanon in 1425 AH.
The book seeks to help the believers reaffirm their Iman in Allah (swt) such that our tongues are moist with the remembrance of Allah, that our hearts are filled with fear of Allah and that our limbs hasten towards the good deeds.
Tawakkul or reliance on Allah swt relates to a number of issues:
First: it relates to the ‘Aqeedah, which is that there is a Creator, Allah (swt), upon whom the Muslim puts his trust in attaining the good and repelling the evil. The one who rejects this is a disbeliever.
Second: The servant must rely on Allah (swt) in everything. This matter is one of the actions of the heart. If the servant states it without conviction in the heart then it is of no consequence.
Third: If the servant rejects the definite evidences of tawakkul he will become a disbeliever.
Fourth: Tawakkul is different to acting according to the means. They are two different issues with different evidences. The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to make tawakkul and act according to the means he used and to instruct his companions to do the same either by ayah or hadith. He (saw) used to prepare all what he could of power, such as emptying the wells of Badr, digging the trench (khandaq), borrowing armour from Safwaan, baths springs, cutting off the water supply in Khaybar, concealing information from the Quraysh when he wanted to open Makkah, and he entered Makkah supported by two plates of armour. He (saw) used to employ a guard before the following ayah was revealed:
وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنْ النَّاسِ.
“Allah will protect you from mankind.” [TMQ Al-Maa`idah:67]
These are just some of the examples we see in Madinah after the establishment of the state. As for Makkah, he permitted his companions to make Hijrah to Habashah, and before the protection of his uncle Abu Talib he stayed in the shi’b throughout the period of the boycott. On the night of the Hijrah he ordered ‘Ali to sleep in his bed. He slept in the cave for three nights and hired a man from Bani Du’l as an experienced guide. All of these are examples of utilising the means. They do not negate tawakkul or have anything to do with the subject. Mixing both topics leads to tawakkul to become only in form without any effect.
The evidences obliging tawakkul are:
الَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمْ النَّاسُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ جَمَعُوا لَكُمْ فَاخْشَوْهُمْ فَزَادَهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَقَالُوا حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ.
“Those (i.e. believers) unto whom the people (hypocrites) said, “Verily, the people (pagans) have gathered against you (a great army), therefore, fear them.” But it (only) increased them in Faith, and they said: “Allah (Alone) is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs (for us).” [TMQAali: ‘Imraan: 173]
وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْحَيِّ الَّذِي لاَ يَمُوتُ.
“And put your trust (O Muhammad) in the Ever Living One Who dies not.” [TMQ Al-Furqan:58]
وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ.
“And in Allah let the believers put their trust.” [TMQ at-Tawbah: 51]
He (swt) said:
عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ.
“Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah.” [TMQ Aali ‘Imraan: 159]
وَمَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ.
“And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him.” [TMQ Talaq: 3]
He (swt) said:
فَاعْبُدْهُ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَيْهِ.
“So worship Him (O Muhammad SAW) and put your trust in Him.” [TMQ Hud:123 ]
He (swt) said:
فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُلْ حَسْبِي اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ.
“But if they turn away, say (O Muhammad [saw]): “Allah is sufficient for me. La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), in Him I put my trust and He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne.” [TMQ at-Tawbah:129]
وَمَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ.
“But whoever puts his trust in Allah, then surely, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [TMQ Al-Anfal: 49]
• Ibn ‘Abbas narrated in the hadith where the Prophet (saw) mentioned seventy thousand people who will enter Paradise without reckoning, he (saw) said regarding their characteristics:
«هم الذين لا يرقون، ولا يسترقون، ولا يتطيرون، وعلى ربهم يتوكلون».
“… They are those who do not ask for ruqyah (incantation), are not pessimistic (or perceive evil-omens), or use cauterisation; they rely (totally) on their Lord”
• Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that when the Messenger of Allah (saw) stood to pray tahajjud he said:
«… اللهم لك أسلمت، وبك آمنت، وعليك توكلت …»
“O Allah, to You I submit, in You I believe and on You I put my trust.”
• It has been narrated that Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq said: I saw the feet of the Mushriks while we were in the cave and they (the Kuffar) were above our heads. I said: “Messenger of Allah, they will see us if they just look down towards their feet.’ He (saw) said:
«ما ظنك يا أبا بكر باثنين الله ثالثهما».
“O Abu Bakr, what do you think about the two with whom the third is Allah?” (Agreed Upon).
• Umm Salamah narrated that when the Prophet (saw) used to leave his house he would say:
«بسم الله توكلت على الله … الحديث».
“In the name of Allah, I put my trust in Allah…”
Reported by at-Tirmizi. He said this hadith is hasan sahih. An-Nawawi said in Riyaadh as- Saliheen that this is a sound hadith.
• Anas b. Malik narrated that the Prophet (saw) said:
«إذا خرج الرجل من بيته، فقال: بسم الله توكلت على الله لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله، يقال له: حسبك، قد كفيت، وهديت، ووقيت، فيلقى الشيطان شيطاناً آخر، فيقول له: كيف لك برجل قد كفي ووقي وهدي».
The Prophet said: When a man goes out of his house and says: “In the name of Allah, I trust in Allah; there is no might and no power but in Allah,” the following will be said to him at that time: “It is enough for you, for you have been sufficed, guided, and protected.” The devil would meet another devil and say to him: How can you deal with a man who has been sufficed, protected and guided?
Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Sahih. Al-Maqdisi said in al-Mukhtaarah: This hadith has been reported by Abu Dawud and an-Nasaa`I with a sound isnad.
• ‘Umar b. al-Khattab narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«لو أنكم توكلتم على الله حق توكله، لرزقكم كما يرزق الطير، تغدوا خماصاً وتروح بطانا».
“If you really and truly placed all your trust in Allah totally He would sustain you as He sustains the birds. They start the day with their bellies empty, and return back with their bellies full.”
Reported by al-Haakim who said the isand is sound. Ibn Hibbaan reported it in his Sahih and al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah declared it as sahih.
As for sincerity in the recommended acts, it means to leave riyaa` (performing acts of worship to impress people). It is from the actions of the heart, which no one knows except the servant and his Creator. Perhaps the matter becomes obscure to the servant till he begins to scrutinise, account himself, reflect and ask himself why he is doing a particular recommended act or why he is confused about it? If he finds that he undertook the action only for the sake of Allah (swt) then he is sincere. But if he finds he is doing it for any other reason then he is showing off. This type of behavioural disposition (nafsiyyah) requires treatment and this may take a long time. When the servant reaches the level where he loves to hide his good deeds then this is a sign of sincerity.
Al-Qurtubi said: al-Hasan was asked about sincerity and showing off, he said: a sign of sincerity is that you love to hide your good deeds and you do not love to hide your bad deeds.’
Abu Yusuf in his Kitab al-Kharaaj said: I have been informed by Mis’ar who narrated from Sa’d b. Ibraheem who said: ‘On the day of al-Qadisiyyah they passed by a man whose hands and feet had been cut off and he was reciting the ayah:
مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَحَسُنَ أُوْلَئِكَ رَفِيقًا.
“Then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqun (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As-Siddiq ), the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!.” [TMQ an-Nisaa:69] a man asked him: who are you O servant of Allah? He replied: I am a man from the Ansar and he did not mention his name.
Ikhlas is obligatory and the evidences for this are numerous in the Kitab and Sunnah:
He (swt) said in Surah az-Zumar:
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ فَاعْبُدْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ.
“Verily, We have sent down the Book to you (O Muhammad) in truth: So worship Allah (Alone) by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah’s sake only, (and not to show-off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship). Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only” [TMQ Al-Zumar:2-3] “] it is known that the address to the Messenger sawis an address to his Ummah.
قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ.
As for the evidences from the Sunnah:
• ’Abd Allah b. Mas’ud narrated, as reported by at-Tirmizi and ash-Shafi’i in ar-Risalah, that the Prophet (saw) said:
«نضر الله امرءاً سمع مقالتي فوعاها وحفظها وبلغها، فرب حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه. ثلاث لا يغل عليهن قلب مسلم إخلاص العمل لله، ومناصحة أئمة المسلمين، ولزوم جماعتهم، فإن الدعوة تحيط من ورائهم».
“May Allah brighten [the face of] a person who hears my words, preserves them and then conveys them to those who have not heard them. At times the one carrying fiqh has no fiqh, himself, and at times the one carrying fiqh conveys it to one who has more fiqh than himself. The heart of a Muslim shall never harbour vindictive feelings against three: sincerity in working for Allah; faithfulness to Muslims; and conformity to the community of believers- their call shall protect the believers and guard them from (Shaytan’s) delusion.”
In the same subject we have the narrations of Zayd b. Thabit as reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibbaan in his Sahih. The hadith has also been narrated by Jubayr b. Mut’im, as reported by Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim. The latter graded the hadith as sahih according to the requirements of the two Shaykhs. It has also been narrated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, as reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Sahih and al-Bazzaar with a hasan isnad. The hadith has also been mentioned by as-Sayuti in his al-Azhaar al-Mutanaathirah fi al-Ahadeeth al-Mutawaatirah.
• Ubay b. Ka’b narrated, as reported by Ahmad and declared hasan by al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«بشر هذه الأمة بالسنا والرفعة والنصر والتمكين في الأرض، فمن عمل منهم عمل الآخرة للدنيا لم يكن له في الآخرة نصيب».
“Let this Ummah have the glad tiding of prosperity, glory, religiosity and authority in the land. Whoever therefore, does an act for the Hereafter for worldly benefit, he has no portion in the Hereafter.”
• Anas narrated, as reported by Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim who said the hadith is sahih according to the condition of the two Shaykhs, that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«من فارق الدنيا على الإخلاص لله وحده لا شريك له، وأقام الصلاة، وآتى الزكاة، فارقها والله عنه راض».
“The one who leaves the world upon sincerity to Allah only without associating partners with Him, establishes the salah, gives Zakah, then he will have left the world while Allah is pleased with him.”
• Abu Umaamah al-Baahili narrated, as reported by an-Nasaa`i and Abu Dawud, that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«… إن الله لا يقبل من العمل إلا ما كان له خالصاً، وابتغي به وجهه».
“Allah will not accept the action unless it was done sincerely for His sake, seeking His good pleasure.” Al-Munziri said: The isnad is jayyid.