Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu
Is it permissible (from a shar’i perspective) to carry out a punishment from the punishments of Allah on earth by Jihadist groups or members in “the absence of the Islamic State”? May Allah bless you and aid you.
From Noor Abulfilat
Wa Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu.
The carrying out of a punishment is a consequent of the judgment after proving the evidence of legitimacy, and the judiciary is the obligatory notification of the judgment. This obligation means the presence of a power that obligates the perpetrator to be sentenced, and this power is the authority, i.e. the ruler applies Allah’s rulings and obliges Muslims to abide by these rulings, so the punishments are not executed except by the ruler who establishes Allah’s rulings.
As to the evidences for that, they are as follows:
1. General evidences, such as:
Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
الزانية والزاني فاجلدوا كل واحد منهما مائة جلدة
“The [unmarried] woman or [unmarried] man found guilty of sexual intercourse – lash each one of them with a hundred lashes”
And Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
والسارق والسارقة فاقطعوا أيديهما جزاء بما كسبا نكالا من الله والله عزيز حكيم
“[As for] the thief, the male and the female, amputate their hands in recompense for what they committed as a deterrent [punishment] from Allah. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.”
And Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
والذين يرمون المحصنات ثم لم يأتوا بأربعة شهداء فاجلدوهم ثمانين جلدة
“And those who accuse chaste women and then do not produce four witnesses – lash them with eighty lashes”
Al-Bukhari has narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
“من بدل دينه فاقتلوه”
“He who changes his religion (i.e. apostates) kill him.”
Muslim has narrated from Ubadah Bin as-Samit who said the Messenger of Allah said:
“خذوا عني، خذوا عني، قد جعل الله لهن سبيلا، البكر بالبكر جلد مائة ونفي سنة، والثيب بالثيب جلد مائة، والرجم”
“Receive from me (this revelation), receive from me (this revelation). Allah has ordained a way for those women (unmarried females who committed adultery). When an unmarried man, commits adultery with an unmarried woman, they should receive one hundred lashes and be exiled for a year. If they (fornicate while they) were married, they shall receive hundred lashes and be stoned to death.”
At-Tirmidhi has narrated in his Sunan from Abi Saleh from Mu’awiyah that he said: the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
“من شرب الخمر فاجلدوه…”
“Whoever drinks Khamr, lash him…”
These are general evidences that obligate the executing of punishments (lashing, amputating, kill him, one hundred lashes and stoning to death…), and they don’t specify who should establish the punishment and how he should establish it. The general evidences, as in Usul, need indication, and commitment to them are through explaining the general. In his noble Ahadith, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم had indicated this generality, and the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) as well indicated this during the period of the righteous Caliphates in a clear explanation that the punishments are executed by the ruler with a clear indication that is based on Shar’i texts, and from these indicated texts that explain the general texts:
a. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُصِيبَهُمْ بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ
“And judge, [O Muhammad], between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. And if they turn away – then know that Allah only intends to afflict them with some of their [own] sins. And indeed, many among the people are defiantly disobedient.”
This noble Ayah, and other extensive Ayat in this subject indicate that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم is the one designated to execute the rulings, and the speech of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم in ruling is a speech to every ruler who comes after him and rules by Islam. This is according to the Usuli (fundamental) Rule that states that the speech of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم is a speech to his Ummah as is, so if it were about the subject of ruling, it would be a speech for the Khulafaa after him as long as there is no specifying evidence. This is not mentioned here, so the one who applies the rulings is the ruler who rules by Islam.
b. There are Ahadeeth for the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم that shows that the guilty person whom should be punished used to be brought to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم to apply the punishment upon him. Muslim extracted on the authority of Anas bin Malik,
أخرج مسلم عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، «أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ أُتِيَ بِرَجُلٍ قَدْ شَرِبَ الْخَمْرَ، فَجَلَدَهُ بِجَرِيدَتَيْنِ نَحْوَ أَرْبَعِينَ»، قَالَ: وَفَعَلَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ عُمَرُ اسْتَشَارَ النَّاسَ، فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ: أَخَفَّ الْحُدُودِ ثَمَانِينَ، «فَأَمَرَ بِهِ عُمَرُ»
“A person who had drunk wine was brought to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. He gave him forty stripes with two lashes. Abu Bakr also did that, but when Umar (assumed the responsibilities) of the Caliphate, he consulted people and Abd al-Rahman said: The mildest punishment (for drinking) is eighty (stripes) and ‘Umar their prescribed this punishment.”
The ones who carry this out are the scholars from the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم Companions and others.
وأخرج البيهقي عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، وَزَيْدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ أَنَّ “رَجُلًا ذَكَرَ أَنَّ ابْنَهُ زَنَا بِامْرَأَةِ رَجُلٍ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : «لَأَقْضِيَنَّ بَيْنَكُمَا بِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ»، فَجَلَدَ ابْنَهُ مِائَةً وَغَرَّبَهُ عَامًا، وَأَمَرَ أُنَيْسًا أَنْ يَغْدُوَ عَلَى امْرَأَةِ الْآخَرِ، فَإِنِ اعْتَرَفَتْ رَجَمَهَا، فَاعْتَرَفَتْ، فَرَجَمَهَا”.
Al-Baihaqi has narrated from Abu Hurairah and Zaid Bin Khaled that “a man mentioned that his son has committed fornication with another man’s wife, so the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “I will judge between you by the Book of Allah”, so he lashed his son one hundred time and exiled him for one year, and he commanded Unais to ask the other’s wife, so if she confessed, she will be stoned to death. She confessed, so he stoned her to death.”
وأخرج البيهقي كذلك في السنن الصغير عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، «أَنَّ رَجُلًا، زَنَا بِامْرَأَةٍ، فَلَمْ يُعْلَمْ بِإِحْصَانِهِ، فَجُلِدَ، ثُمَّ عُلِمَ بِإِحْصَانِهِ، فَرُجِمَ» وأخرج النسائي نحوه.
Al-Baihaqi has narrated also in his book As-Sunan as-Sagheer from Abi az-Zubair from Jabir that “a man committed fornication with a woman. It was not known that he was married. So he was lashed. It was then known that he was married, so he was stoned to death.” An-Nasa’i’ has narrated a hadith of the like.
وأخرج أبو داود في سننه عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ أُمَيَّةَ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ نَائِمًا فِي الْمَسْجِدِ عَلَيَّ خَمِيصَةٌ لِي ثَمَنُ ثَلَاثِينَ دِرْهَمًا، فَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ فَاخْتَلَسَهَا مِنِّي، فَأُخِذَ الرَّجُلُ، فَأُتِيَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، فَأَمَرَ بِهِ لِيُقْطَعَ، قَالَ: فَأَتَيْتُهُ، فَقُلْتُ: أَتَقْطَعُهُ مِنْ أَجْلِ ثَلَاثِينَ دِرْهَمًا، أَنَا أَبِيعُهُ وَأُنْسِئُهُ ثَمَنَهَا؟ قَالَ: «فَهَلَّا كَانَ هَذَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَأْتِيَنِي بِهِ»
Abu Dawud extracted in his Sunan on the authority of Safwan Bin Umayyah who said: I was sleeping in the mosque on a cloak mine whose price was thirty dirhams. A man came and snatched it away from me. The man was seized and brought to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم. He ordered that his hand should be cut off. I came to him and said: ‘Do you cut off only for thirty dirhams? I sell it to him and make the payment of its price a loan?’ He said: ‘Why did you not do so before bringing him to me?”
وفي رواية الدارقطني عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه قال رسول الله : «اشْفَعُوا مَا لَمْ يَتَّصِلْ إِلَى الْوَالِي، فَإِذَا أُوصِلَ إِلَى الْوَالِي فَعَفَا فَلَا عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُ»، ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِقَطْعِهِ مِنَ الْمِفْصَلِ.
And in a narration of ad-Darqatni from Amr Bin Shoa’ib from his father that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Forgive as long as it did not reach the Governor, and if it were lead to the governor and he forgave, so may Allah never forgive him.” Then he ordered the amputation from the wrist.
c. There were incidents in the era of the righteous Khulafaa, where the perpetrator will be brought to the Khaleefah or his representative to execute the punishment, and from these incidents:
أخرج أبو داود الطيالسي في مسنده عَنْ حُضَيْنِ أَبِي سَاسَانَ الرَّقَاشِيِّ، قَالَ: حَضَرْتُ عُثْمَانَ بْنَ عَفَّانَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ وَأُتِيَ بِالْوَلِيدِ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ قَدْ شَرِبَ الْخَمْرَ وَشَهِدَ عَلَيْهِ حُمْرَانُ بْنُ أَبَانَ وَرَجُلٌ آخَرُ فَقَالَ عُثْمَانُ لِعَلِيٍّ: «أَقِمْ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدَّ…»
Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi in his Musnad from Hudhayn Abi Sasan ar-Raqashi who said: I was present when Uthman bin Affan (ra) was a caliph, and Al Walid Bin Uqbah was brought after he had drunk alcohol. Humran Bin Aban and another man witnessed him, so Uthman told Ali: “Punish him…”
وأخرج أحمد في مسنده عن عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ “أبي موسى الأشعري” «أن رسول الله بَعَثَهُ عَلَى الْيَمَنِ، ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ مُعَاذَ بْنَ جَبَلٍ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ: انْزِلْ وَأَلْقَى لَهُ وِسَادَةً، فَإِذَا رَجُلٌ عِنْدَهُ مُوثَقٌ قَالَ: ” مَا هَذَا؟ ” قَالَ: كَانَ يَهُودِيًّا فَأَسْلَمَ، ثُمَّ رَاجَعَ دِينَهُ دِينَ السَّوْءِ فَتَهَوَّدَ. قَالَ: لَا أَجْلِسُ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ قَضَاءُ اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثَلَاثَ مِرَارٍ، فَأَمَرَ بِهِ فَقُتِلَ».
Ahmad extracted in his Musnad on the authority of Abdullah Bin Qais “Abu Musa al-Ash’ari” “that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم sent him to Yemen, he then sent Mu’adh bin Jabal afterwards. When he arrived, Abu Musa told him to come down and gave him a cushion to sit down, then a man was brought. He asked, “What is this?” He replied, “He had been a Jew, then he became a Muslim, then he reverted to Kufr. Mu’adh said: ‘I will not sit down until he is killed; this is the decree of Allah and His Messenger, (saying it) three times. He commanded them to kill him, so he was killed.”
Abu Bakr fought the apostates when they denied the Zakah.
أخرج ابن حبان في صحيحه عن أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ لَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَاسْتُخْلِفَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رضي الله تعالى عَنْهُ وَكَفَرَ مَنْ كَفَرَ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ، قاتلهم أبو بكر وقَالَ: “وَاللَّهِ لَأُقَاتِلَنَّ مَنْ فَرَّقَ بَيْنَ الصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ فَإِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ حَقُّ الْمَالِ وَاللَّهِ لَوْ مَنَعُونِي عِقَالًا كَانُوا يُؤَدُّونَهُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لَقَاتَلْتُهُمْ عَلَى مَنْعِهِ”
Ibn Hibban narrated in his Saheeh from Abu Hurairah who said: “When the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم died, and Abu Bakr became the Khaleefah after him and some of the Arabs reverted to disbelief, Abu Bakr fought them and said: “I will fight anyone who separates prayer and Zakah; Zakah is the compulsory right to be taken from wealth. By Allah, if they withhold from me a rope that they used to give to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم, I will fight them for withholding it.”
The conclusion is that as the specification overrides the general, and the restricted explicitly overrides according to the Usuli foundations, the clarified [ruling] overrides the general. So the one who carries out the punishments is the ruler who rules by Islam, i.e. the Imam, and this is a fixed issue in accordance to the actions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم and to what the Khulafaa Rashidoun have followed, as we have showed earlier… This matter was well-known throughout the eras of the Islamic Khilafah, and much documentation from esteemed scholars is existent:
The saying of Ibn Taimiyah “Allah سبحانه وتعالى has addressed the believers with punishments and rights in an unrestricted address as His sayingL
والسارق والسارقة فاقطعوا
“As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands…”
But He knew that the addressed by this action should be able to do it, and it is not obligatory for the incapable… Ability means authority, so for that executing punishments is an obligation on those who have authority and their representatives.”
Imam ‘Alaa ad-Deen al-Kasani said, “As to the conditions of the permissibility of establishing them (means the punishments)… It is the leadership.”
Al-Qurtubi says, “There is no disagreement that the one who is addressed with this issue – punishments – is the leader “imam” and his representative.”
Imam ash-Shafi’i said, “No one should establish a punishment on the free people except the Imam and to whomever the Imam gives authority.”
Ibn Qudamah said: “It is not permissible for anybody to carry out a punishment except the Imam or his representative.”
3. In the case where there is no authority that rules by the Hukm (legislation) of Allah, it is an obligation on all Muslims to work sincerely and diligently to establish the authority that rules by Islam because it is Fard (obligation) as indicated in numerous texts that mention this in the Quran, Sunnah, and the concession of the Companions (Ijmaa as-Sahaba):
As for the Book, Allah سبحانه وتعالى said addressing the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم:
فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ
“So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth.”
And His saying:
وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ
“And judge, [O Muhammad], between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you.”
The address to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم to judge between them by what Allah has revealed is an address to his Ummah صلى الله عليه وسلم, and its implication is to find a ruler after the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings upon him who judges between them by what Allah has revealed, and the command in the address notes the command; the subject of the address is an obligation (Fard), and this is an indication for the obligation as in Usul, and the judge who judges between Muslims by what Allah has revealed after the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم is the Khaleefah. The ruling system respectively is the system of Khilafah. Moreover, establishing punishments and all other rulings is obligatory, and the judge accordingly is the Khaleefah, and the ruling system is the system of Khilafah.
As for the Sunnah:
فقد رُوي عن نافع قال: قال لي عبد الله بن عمر: سمعت رسول الله يقول: “من خلع يداً من طاعة لقي الله يوم القيامة ولا حجة له، ومن مات وليس في عنقه بيعة مات ميتة جاهلية” (رواه مسلم).
It was narrated from Nafi’ who said: Abdullah Bin Umar told me: I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم saying: “One who withdraws his hand from obedience (to the Amir) will find no argument (in his defense) when he stands before Allah on the Day of Resurrection; and one who dies without having sworn allegiance on his neck will die the death of one belonging to the Days of Ignorance.” [Narrated by Muslim]
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم obligated upon each Muslim to have a sworn allegiance and has described whoever dies without this sworn allegiance (bayah) as dying a death of one belonging to the Days of Ignorance (Jahilliya). After the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم, bay’ah is only given to the Khaleefah. Since the hadith obliges the existence of a bay’ah on the neck of every Muslim it also obliges the appointment of a Khaleefah.
وروى مسلم عن الأعرج عن أبي هريرة عن النبي قال: «إنما الإمام جُنة يُقاتَل من ورائه ويُتقى به».
Muslim has narrated from al-A’raj from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who said: “A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by (him from tyrants and aggressors).”
وروى مسلم عن أبي حازم قال: قاعدت أبا هريرة خمس سنين، فسمعته يُحدّث عن النبي قال: «كانت بنو إسرائيل تسوسهم الأنبياء، كلما هلك نبي خلفه نبي، وإنه لا نبي بعدي، وستكون خلفاء فتكثر، قالوا فما تأمرنا؟ قال: فُوا ببيعة الأول فالأول، وأعطوهم حقهم، فإن الله سائلهم عما استرعاهم».
Muslim narrated on the authority of Abu Hazem who said: “I accompanied Abu Huraira for five years, so I heard him saying that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Banu Isra’el were ruled over by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him; but after me there is no Prophet and there will be caliphs and they will be quite large in number.’ His Companions said: ‘What do you order us to do (in case we come to have more than one Caliph)?’ He said: ‘The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others. Concede to them their due rights (i.e. obey them). Allah will question them about the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.'”
In these Ahadith, there is a description of the Khalifah as being a shield, i.e. a protection. The description of the Imam as a shield implies praise for the presence of the Imam, making it a request (talab). This is because when Allah سبحانه وتعالى or His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم informs us about something that includes a rebuke, this is taken as a request to abstain from it. Similarly, when the text contains praise for an action it is taken as a request to perform it. If the commanded action is needed to implement the divine rule, or if its neglect would cause the divine law to be abandoned, then this is a decisive request. These ahadith also inform us that those who run the affairs of the Muslims are the Khulafa’, which indicates a command to appoint them. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered the Muslims to obey the Khulafa’ and to fight those who dispute with them regarding their authority, which proves that it is an obligation to appoint a Khalifah and protect his Khilafah by fighting those who dispute his authority. Muslim reported that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
فقد روى مسلم أن النبي قال: «ومن بايع إماماً فأعطاه صفقة يده، وثمره قلبه، فليطعه إن استطاع. فإن جاء آخر ينازعه، فاضربوا عنق الآخر»
“Whosoever gave a Bay’ah to an Imam, giving him the clasp of his hand, and the fruit of his heart shall obey him as long as he can, and if another comes to dispute with him, you must strike the neck of that man.”
Therefore the command to obey the Imam is an order to appoint him. Furthermore the command to fight those who dispute with him is cumulative evidence for the decisive matter of maintaining the presence of one Khalifah.
As for the Ijma’ of the Sahabah, they (may Allah be pleased with them all) agreed upon the necessity of establishing a successor (i.e. Khalifah) to Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم after his death. They all agreed to appoint Abu Bakr as the Khalifah and upon his death to appoint ‘Umar (ra) as his successor. Similarly they appointed ‘Ali (ra) as the successor to ‘Uthman upon his death. The general consensus of the Sahabah on the importance of appointing a Khaleefah manifested itself emphatically upon the death of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم where they prioritized the task of appointing a successor to him over his burial, even though it is known that the burial of the dead person after his death is obligatory.
The Sahabah were obliged to prepare for the burial of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم but instead were preoccupied with the appointment of the first Khaleefah. Some Sahabah kept silent about this delay for two nights, despite having the ability to bury the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم sooner. The Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم passed away late on Monday morning and was not buried that day or night. Not until Tuesday night, after Abu Bakr (ra) was given the bay’ah and became Khaleefah was Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم buried. So the burial was delayed for two nights, and Abu Bakr was given the bay’ah before the burial of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم.
Therefore, this action of the Sahabah is an evidence of Ijma’ (consensus) for engaging in the appointment of the Khaleefah instead of burying the dead person. This could not have been legitimate unless the appointment of a Khaleefah was obligatory and of higher priority than the burial of the dead person. Furthermore, throughout the lives of the Sahabah, they consented to the obligation of appointing the Khaleefah.
Consequently, it is an obligation on Muslims, in the absence of a ruler who rules by Islam “Khaleefah”, to exert their efforts to establish him. The presence of a Khaleefah is an obligation, and a major obligation, as he is the one establishes the punishments set by the Lord of the Worlds. Whatever is important for accomplishing an obligation is an obligation itself, especially establishing the punishments is a great obligation in which the goodness and integrity of the Ummah occur.
أخرج ابن ماجه في سننه عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : «حَدٌّ يُعْمَلُ بِهِ فِي الْأَرْضِ، خَيْرٌ لِأَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ مِنْ أَنْ يُمْطَرُوا أَرْبَعِينَ صَبَاحًا».
Ibn Majah has narrated in his Sunan from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “A legal punishment that is carried out in the land is better for the people of that land than if it were to rain for forty days.”
In conclusion, I draw the attention of Muslims in the lands of struggle in which there is neither a stable ruling nor a state, I draw their attention to the obligation of solving the problems between Muslims by reconciliation and not allowing these problems between people to worsen. Solve them by reconciling, where scholars, wise people, and people of power in the country arise to reconcile between people to solve their problems, fulfilling the needs of the poor from amongst them, and standing with the oppressed to take his right from the oppressor… This is because of all the general texts about these issues, and about reconciliation between people, and these texts are not specific to the presence of a ruler. Also because of the indefinite texts about the reconciliation that are restricted to the presence of a ruler. From these texts:
لَّا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِّن نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًاۖ
“No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah – then We are going to give him a great reward.”
وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنفُسُ الشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِن تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرا
“And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no sin upon them if they make terms of settlement between them – and settlement is best. And present in [human] souls is stinginess. But if you do good and fear Allah – then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.”
إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
“The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.”
وَجَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِين
“And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes reconciliation – his reward is [due] from Allah. Indeed, He does not like wrongdoers.”
وأخرج أحمد في مسنده عَنْ أم الدرداء عن أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : «أَلَا أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِأَفْضَلَ مِنْ دَرَجَةِ الصَّلَاةِ، وَالصِّيَامِ، وَالصَّدَقَةِ؟» قَالُوا: بَلَى قَالَ: “إِصْلَاحُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ قَالَ: وَفَسَادُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ هِيَ الْحَالِقَةُ”.
Ahmad has narrated in his Musnad from Um ad-Darda’ from Abu ad-Darda’ that he said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Shall I not inform you of something more excellent in degree than prayer, fasting, and almsgiving (sadaqah)?” The people replied: ‘Yes, Prophet of Allah!’ He said: “It is putting things right between people, spoiling them is the shaver (destructive).”
وأخرجه أبو داود في سننه، وصححه ابن حبان عَنْ أُمِّ الدَّرْدَاءِ، عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ، بلفظ: قال رَسُولِ اللَّهِ : «أَلَا أُخْبِرُكُمْ، بِأَفْضَلَ مِنْ دَرَجَةِ الصِّيَامِ، وَالْقِيَامِ؟» ، قَالُوا: بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: «إِصْلَاحُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ، وَفَسَادُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ هِيَ الْحَالِقَةُ».
Abu Dawud has narrated in his Sunan, and Ibn Hibban has corrected it from Um ad-Darda’ from Abu ad-Darda’, as the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Shall I not inform you of something more excellent in degree than fasting and praying at night?” The people replied: ‘Yes, Prophet of Allah!’ He said: “It is putting things right between people, spoiling them is the shaver (destructive).”
Thus, solving problems in the areas of disputes, where there is no state, should be by reconciliation on condition that this reconciliation neither makes the unlawful lawful nor makes the lawful unlawful according to the legitimate texts, such as:
اخرج ابو داود في سننه عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ “الصُّلْحُ جَائِزٌ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ” زَادَ أَحْمَدُ ”إِلاَّ صُلْحًا أَحَلَّ حَرَامًا أَوْ حَرَّمَ حَلاَلاً” . وَزَادَ سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ “الْمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَى شُرُوطِهِمْ” .
Abu Dawud has narrated in his Sunan from Abu Hurairah that he said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Conciliation between Muslims is permissible.” In Ahmad’s narration, he added: “except the conciliation which makes lawful unlawful and unlawful lawful.” Sulayman ibn Dawud added: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Muslims are on (i.e. stick to) their conditions.”
وأخرج الترمذي في سننه عن كَثِيرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ المُزَنِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ: «الصُّلْحُ جَائِزٌ بَيْنَ المُسْلِمِينَ، إِلَّا صُلْحًا حَرَّمَ حَلَالًا، أَوْ أَحَلَّ حَرَامًا، وَالمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَى شُرُوطِهِمْ، إِلَّا شَرْطًا حَرَّمَ حَلَالًا، أَوْ أَحَلَّ حَرَامًا» وقال الترمذي: هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ
At-Tirmidhi has narrated from Kathir bin ‘Amr bin ‘Awf Al-Muzani narrated from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Reconciliation is allowed among the Muslims, except for reconciliation that makes the lawful unlawful, or the unlawful lawful. And the Muslims will be held to their conditions, except the conditions that make the lawful unlawful, or the unlawful lawful.” This is a Hasan Sahih Hadith
وكذلك أخرجه ابن حبان في صحيحه عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ بلفظ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : «الصُّلْحُ جَائِزٌ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلَّا صُلْحًا أَحَلَّ حَرَامًا أَوْ حَرَّمَ حَلَالًا».
Also, Ibn Hibban has narrated in his Sahih from Abi Hurairah that the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Reconciling between Muslims is permissible, except reconciliation that forbids something that is allowed, or allows something that is forbidden.”
Reconciling between people is requested whether there is a ruler or not. This is the Islamic ruling which I see in this matter, and Allah سبحانه وتعالى has the most knowledge and wisdom.
1. Legal punishments (hudud) are established by the ruler who rules by Islam, and it will expiate the sin that has obligated the punishment, that is the guilty who is punished in this life will not be punished in the Hereafter.
أخرج البخاري في صحيحه عن عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ وَكَانَ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا وَهُوَ أَحَدُ النُّقَبَاءِ لَيْلَةَ العَقَبَةِ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ، وَحَوْلَهُ عِصَابَةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ: «بَايِعُونِي عَلَى أَنْ لاَ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا، وَلاَ تَسْرِقُوا، وَلاَ تَزْنُوا، وَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ، وَلاَ تَأْتُوا بِبُهْتَانٍ تَفْتَرُونَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَأَرْجُلِكُمْ، وَلاَ تَعْصُوا فِي مَعْرُوفٍ، فَمَنْ وَفَى مِنْكُمْ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَعُوقِبَ فِي الدُّنْيَا فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَهُ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا ثُمَّ سَتَرَهُ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ إِلَى اللَّهِ، إِنْ شَاءَ عَفَا عَنْهُ وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَاقَبَهُ». فَبَايَعْنَاهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ.
Al-Bukhari has narrated in his Sahih from ‘Ubada bin As-Samit (ra), who took part in the battle of Badr and was a Naqib (a person heading a group of six persons), on the night of Al-‘Aqaba pledge: Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said while a group of his companions were around him, “Swear allegiance to me for: Not to join anything in worship along with Allah, not to steal, not to commit illegal sexual intercourse (zina), not to kill your children, not to accuse an innocent person (to spread such an accusation among people), not to be disobedient (when ordered) to do good deed.”
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم added: “Whoever among you fulfills his pledge will be rewarded by Allah. And whoever indulges in any one of them (except the ascription of partners to Allah) and gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be expiation for that sin. And if one indulges in any of them, and Allah conceals his sin, it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter).” ‘Ubada bin As-Samit added: “So we swore allegiance for these.”
2. In the lands of battle (dispute), where there is neither a state nor stable ruling, problems should not be left to worsen but should be resolved through reconciliation where the people of power, the scholars, and those who have an effect should intercede, and work honestly and sincerely. Allah سبحانه وتعالى is the best Helper.
This is the most preponderant to your question regarding establishing the legal punishments (hudud), and I have mentioned the legitimate (Shar’ii) evidences for that, the evidence criteria, and then the procedure of the extraction of the ruling. Allah سبحانه وتعالى is the most Knowledgeable and Wise.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
30 Muharram 1435 AH
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