A- Linguistic Meaning of Jihad:
The word ‘Jihad’ has a four-lettered root verb ‘Jaahada جَاهَدَ’ in the verb form of ‘Fi’al (فِعال). It comes with the meaning of المفاعلة i.e. mutual action of the two parties, like the word khisam/الخِصَام (mutual conflict) with the meaning of المُخَاصَمَة / mukhasama (mutual conflict), which has the root word in the verb Khaasama/ خاصم. It is also like the word الجدال/ Jidal (Mutual Quarrel) with the meaning of المجادلة/ mutual quarrel, which has the root word in the verb جادل “Jaadala.”
The three-lettered verb root for the word ‘jihad’ is جَهِد/ jahida to exert). The author of Al-Qamus Al-Muhit says the meaning of the tripartite verb as, الجَهد: الطاقة، ويُضَمُّ، والمشقة “Al-Jahd means energy, to assemble and hardship.” It is also said in Lisan Al-arab: الجَهد «بالفتح» المشقة، والجُهد «بالضمّ» الطاقة، وفيه: الجهاد: استِفرَاغُ ما في الوسع والطاقة من قول أو فعل) “Al-jahdu, with Fatha vowel sound, means ‘hardship’, Al-juhdu, with Dhamma vowel sound, means ‘power’. Al-jihad means: ‘exhausting as much as possible of power in terms of sayings and actions.’”
The author of the dictionary ‘al-Munjid’ says, جاهَدَ مُجَاهدةً وجهاداً: بذل وُسعَه، والأصل: بذل كل منهما جهده في دَفعِ صاحبه “Jaahada mujahadathan wa jihadan, meaning exerting one’s effort to the utmost. The root word means: Both of them exert their efforts to the utmost to protect themselves.”
Al-Qastalani says in his commentary to Sahih Bukhari, الجهادُ بكسر الجيم، مصدر جاهدت العدوَّ مجاهدةً، وجهاداً، وأصله: جيهاداً، كقيتالاً، فخُفِّف بحذف الياء، وهو مشتق من الجَهد، بفتح الجيم، وهو التعب، والمشقة، لما فيه من ارتكابها، أو من الجُهد بالضم، وهو الطاقة، لأن كل واحدٍ منهما بذل طاقته في دفع صاحبه “Al-Jihad is a root word which means to fight the enemy. The word ‘Jihad’ is ‘je’ehad (جيهاد), where the letter ى is included. It is like saying قيتال/ Q’ital, with the letter ى included in the word Qital. Thus the word has ى removed, to pronounce Jihad, which is derived from الجَهد/ al-jahd which means fatigue and hardship for the one who commits to it. Or it is derived from the word الجُهد / Al-juhd which means power, as both the party exerts their energy to protect themselves.”
It is said in Tafsir Nisaburi: والصحيح أنَّ الجهاد: بذل المجهود في حصول المقصود “The correct opinion is that the word ‘Jihad’ means: exerting efforts to achieve the goal.”
By looking at the linguistic meaning of the word ‘Jihad’ from these excerpts, we can define the word linguistically. So, we say the real linguistic meaning for the word ‘jihad’ is as follows: الجهاد: هو استفراغ الوسع في المُدَافَعَةِ بين طرفين ولو تقديراً “Jihad means the exertion of ability in defense between the two parties, even if it is hidden (تقديراً).” What we mean by hidden is jihad of a man against himself, whereby what is hidden is that the man has two parties within himself, when there is a struggle between two contradicting desires and each of them fights to dominate the other. This is the definition we have combined from what comes in ‘Lisan Al-Arab’ and in the commentary of Qasatalani, wherein we have included the phrase ولو تقديراً ‘even if it is hidden’ to add more clarity.
Based on this linguistic meaning, the exerted effort may be a physical act, with or without a weapon, or with or without spending wealth. The exerted effort may be through words. It may be by abstaining from an act and speech. This is like the one who refrains from obeying the parents, in what they command him of sins (ma’siya). It is his patient uprightness despite their insistence in asking him to do the sins. It is like the one who overlooks the desire to satiate from the prohibited act, as he disputes with himself in this regard. It is what mentioned in the ‘Hashiya Jamal’ (scholium) for the book ‘Jalalayn’ as: الجهادُ: هو الصبر على الشِّدة، وقد يكون في الحرب، وقد يكون في النفس “Jihad is the patience upon the hardship, and it may be in war or it may be against the soul.”
Also based on this linguistic definition: قد يكون الطَرَفُ الآخر الذي يجاهده المسلم هو النفس، أو الشيطان، أو الفساق، أو الكفار “The party whom a Muslim fights against may be his soul, or Shaytan or sinner or disbeliever.”
Within this linguistic definition, it includes Jihad in the Path of Allah, such as the Jihad of a Muslim seeking the pleasure of Allah (swt). Or it includes Jihad in the Path of Shaytan such as Jihad of a disbeliever against others. This is because Jihad is, as Nisaburi says, an exerted effort to achieve the goal, regardless of the nature of the goal which a person who exerts aims for.
The Noble Quran has used the verb of ‘Jihad’ in describing the activities of the disbelievers from amongst parents, who divert their believing children from their Iman. Allah (swt) says,
(وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ) “But if they endeavor (jaahadaaka/جاهداك) to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them. To Me is your return,” [TMQ 29:8]. And Allah (swt) says,
(وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا)
“But if they endeavor (jaahadaaka/جاهداك) to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness.” [TMQ Surah Luqman 31:15].
B- Jihad in the Sense of Shariah
The word ‘Al-jihad’ is conveyed by the Shariah in the Noble Quran and Prophetic Sunnah in the sense of general linguistic meaning as mentioned above. The Shariah has confined it to specific meaning which is, بَذلُ الوُسع في القتال في سبيل الله، مباشَرَةً، أو مُعَاونَةً بمالٍ، أو رأيٍ، أو تكثير سواد، أو غير ذلك “exertion of efforts in fighting in the path of Allah directly or aiding it through wealth or opinion or increasing the numbers (of fighters) or others…” It seems that this specific meaning of Jihad was only during the Madinah period and was not during the Makkah period, as the legislation of Jihad was not yet revealed during the Makkah period. The word ‘Al-Jihad’ used in the Makkah period verses indicates its general linguistic meaning. There are three such verses of Surah Al-Ankabut, (وَمَن جَٰهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَٰهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ) “And whoever strives (Jaahada) only strives for [the benefit of] himself…” [TMQ Surah Al-Ankabuth 29:6].
Allah (swt) said,
(وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا) “But if they endeavor (jaahadaaka/جاهداك) to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness.” [TMQ Surah Al-Ankabut 29:8] Allah (swt) said,
(وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا) “And those who strive for Us – We will surely guide them to Our ways.” [TMQ Al-Ankabut 29:69].
And there is a verse in the Makkah period Surah Luqman, which is,
(وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا) “But if they endeavor (jaahadaaka/جاهداك) to make you associate with Me.” [TMQ Surah Luqman 31:15].
As for the verse of Jihad in the Makkah period surah An-Nahl, the following verse includes mentioning of Hijrah, which indicates that the verse is a Madinah period verse within the Makkah period surah. This is what is mentioned by the mufassirs and the verse is,
(ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِن بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ)
“Then, indeed your Lord, to those who emigrated after they had been compelled [to renounce their religion] and thereafter fought [for the cause of Allah] and were patient – indeed, your Lord, after that, is Forgiving and Merciful.” [TMQ Surah an-Nahl 16:110].
As for the word “al-Jihad” used in the Madinah period verses, there are twenty-six with wording which clearly indicates the meaning of fighting. Amongst them is in Surah an-Nisa,
(لَّا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا)
“Not equal are those believers remaining [at home] – other than the disabled – and the mujahideen, [who strive and fight] in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred the mujahideen through their wealth and their lives over those who remain [behind], by degrees. And to both Allah has promised the best [reward]. But Allah has preferred the mujahideen over those who remain [behind] with a great reward.” [TMQ Surah An-Nisa’a 4:95].
It is clear in this verse that the word ‘jihad’ means setting out for fighting and its preference against those who sit back without leaving out for Jihad. Amongst them also is the verse in Surah At-Tawbah,
(انفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالًا وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ)
Go forth, whether light or heavy, and strive with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah. That is better for you, if you only knew.” [TMQ Surah At-Tawbah 9: 41].
The command of Jihad after the command to go forth i.e. leaving out means that the word ‘Jihad’ is fighting. And the verse,
(وَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَجَاهِدُوا مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ أُولُو الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُوا ذَرْنَا نَكُن مَّعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ)
“And when a surah was revealed [enjoining them] to believe in Allah and to fight with His Messenger, those of wealth among them asked your permission [to stay back] and said, ‘Leave us to be with them who sit [at home].’” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:86]. Allah (swt) said,
(لَٰكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ جَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ)
“But the Messenger and those who believed with him fought with their wealth and their lives. Those will have [all that is] good, and it is those who are the successful.” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:88].
Amongst them is what comes in Surah as-Saff after the mentioning of Qital (fighting) at the beginning of the surah as Allah (swt) says,
(إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنْيَانٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ)
“Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly.” [TMQ Surah As-Saff 61:4].
After that, the following two verses (verse 10 and 11) come to encourage this fighting by naming it as jihad as He (swt) says,
(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ (10) تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ)
“O you who have believed, shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? (10) [It is that] you believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is best for you, if you should know.” [TMQ Surah As-Saff 61:10, 11].
This is what related to the word ‘Jihad’ in Madinah period verses, in which we can clearly see that these verses indicate the specific fighting. It also includes what is necessitated for fighting in its natural condition in terms of exerting with wealth that which is necessary to prepare the apparatus for fighting, or to proceed in the fighting itself and to present the condition for its legitimacy, which is to convey the Dawah to the disbelievers. As mentioned in the book مغني المحتاج ‘Mughni Al-Muhtaj’, it is not allowed to initiate fighting without calling them to Islam.
Similarly, the word ‘Jihad’ has come in the Prophetic Sunnah with this Shariah meaning also which is fighting and what it constitutes. Abu Huraira (ra) said: they asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Inform us of the deed that equates jihad in the Path of Allah?’. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, لا تطيقونه “You will not be able to do that”. They asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Inform us so that we may be able to do.’ The Prophet (saw) said,
«مَثَلُ الْمُجَاهِدِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ الصَّائِمِ الْقَائِمِ الْقَانِتِ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ لَا يَفْتُرُ مِنْ صِيَامٍ وَلَا صَلَاةٍ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ الْمُجَاهِدُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ المجاهد»
“He who engages in Jihad in the Path of Allah is like him who fasts and spends the night in prayer, who assiduously recites God’s verses and does not slacken from fasting and charity until he who is engaged in jihad in the Path of Allah returns (to his family.)”
It is clear from the context of the hadith that the question was about the one who engages in Jihad, meaning the one who fights in the path of Allah in particular, and the answer also indicates that meaning as the Prophet (saw) says,حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ الْمُجَاهِدُ» “Until the one who engages in jihad returns (to his family.)” Jabir (ra) narrates: They asked: “O Messenger of Allah! Which Jihad is best?’ He (saw) said, «من عُقِرَ جَوادُه وأُهرِق دَمُه!» “(That of a man) whose blood is shed and his horse is wounded.”
Abdullah ibn Abbas Narrated: The Prophet (saw) said,
«لَمَّا أُصِيبَ إِخْوَانُكُمْ بِأُحُدٍ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ أَرْوَاحَهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ تَرِدُ أَنْهَارَ الْجَنَّةِ، تَأْكُلُ مِنْ ثِمَارِهَا، وَتَأْوِي إِلَى قَنَادِيلَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ مُعَلَّقَةٍ فِي ظِلِّ الْعَرْشِ، فَلَمَّا وَجَدُوا طِيبَ مَأْكَلِهِمْ وَمَشْرَبِهِمْ وَمَقِيلِهِمْ قَالُوا : مَنْ يُبَلِّغُ إِخْوَانَنَا عَنَّا أَنَّا أَحْيَاءٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ نُرْزَقُ لِئَلاَّ يَزْهَدُوا فِي الْجِهَادِ وَلاَ يَنْكُلُوا عِنْدَ الْحَرْبِ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ : أَنَا أُبَلِّغُهُمْ عَنْكُمْ . قَالَ : فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ﴿وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا﴾. إِلَى آخِرِ الآيَةِ»
“When your brethren were smitten at the battle of Uhud, Allah put their spirits in the crops of green birds which go down to the rivers of Paradise, eat its fruit and nestle in lamps of gold in the shade of the Throne. Then when they experienced the sweetness of their food, drink and rest, they asked: Who will tell our brethren about us that we are alive in Paradise provided with provision, in order that they might not be disinterested in jihad and recoil in war? Allah Most High said: I shall tell them about you; so Allah sent down;
(وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا)“And do not consider those who have been killed in Allah’s path.” (till the end of the verse)” [End Quote].
Thus, it is clear from these divine legal texts and many other divine texts that Shariah has transferred the word Jihad from its general linguistic meaning into a specific meaning, which is to fight in the Path of Allah (swt). This specific meaning constitutes, as mentioned above, apart from the other expressions that revolve around the meaning of Jihad, war, conquest and fighting. Here the Shariah sources come one after another to define Jihad with the meaning of fighting in the Path of Allah (swt). The following are some of the excerpts from the books of jurisprudence that deal with the Shariah meaning of Jihad and its related ahkaam.
It has been mentioned in the Hanifi book of jurisprudence, Bada’i’ as-Sana’i’ fi Tartib al-Shara’I’ (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع Creative Artistry in the Arrangement of Legalities), أما الجهاد في اللغة فعبارة عن بَذل الجهد وفي عرف الشرع يستعمل في بَذل الوُسع والطاقة بالقتال في سبيل الله عز وجل بالنفس والمال واللسان أو غير ذلك “As for jihad, it linguistically means the exertion of efforts. In the Shariah definition, the word is used for exertion of capacity and energy for fighting in the Path of Allah (swt), azza wa jall, with body, wealth, speech and other than that.”
In the Maliki book of jurisprudence, Manh Al-Jaleel
(منح الجليل), it says: الجهاد: أي، قتال مسلم كافراً غير ذي عهدٍ، لإعلاء كلمة الله تعالى أو حُضُورُه له [أي: للقتال] أو دُخُوله أرضه [أي أرض الكافر] له [أي: للقتال] قاله ابن عرفة
“Jihad is a fighting of a Muslim against an uncovenanted disbeliever in order to raise the word of Allah ta’ala or participating in the fighting or entering the land of disbeliever for fighting. This is what said by Ibn Arafa.”
It has come in Shafi’ book of jurisprudence ‘Al-Iqna’a’ (الإقناع) about the definition of Jihad, أي: القتال في سبيل الله “It is a fighting in the path of Allah”. Shirazi affirms in his book ‘Al-Muhdib’ (المهذب) that: أن الجهاد هو القتال “Jihad is fighting.”
As for what comes in the Hanbali book of jurisprudence, ‘Al-Mughni’ (المغني), the author of the book Ibn Qudama did not discuss in the ‘Chapter of Jihad’ any other meaning, other than what is related to war and fighting the disbelievers. He discusses whether it is a collective obligation or an individual one, whether it is in the sense of guarding the believers from the enemy or guarding (Ribaat) the borders and gaps. He says الرباط أصل الجهاد وفرعه “Ribaat (border protection) is the root and branch of jihad.” And he says, إذا جاء العدو صار الجهاد عليهم فَرض عين… فإذا ثبت هذا فإنهم لا يخرجون إلا بإذن الأمير لأن أمر الحرب موكول إليه “If an enemy comes, Jihad upon them becomes individual obligation… It is affirmed that they will march forth only with the permission of the leader as the matter of war is entrusted upon him.”
Thus, the word ‘Jihad’ has transferred from its linguistic meaning into the Shariah meaning such that when the word is mentioned, it is understood only in the sense of fighting.
What we regret is the state of this defeated Ummah, for whom the word ‘Jihad’ has become a great embarrassment/discomfort. The Ummah does not want to discuss it with its opponents, particularly with those who try to add false and wrong interpretations to this concept. This is because the concept is no longer as pure and clear as what is mentioned in the Shariah texts as explained by the majority of the ‘ulema. Instead, the intellectual and material weakness of the Ummah enabled it to introduce strange interpretations against its Shariah meaning. This in turn led to the division of Muslims between extremes. Some of them have declined in their thinking, making Jihad merely defensive, to protect oneself and identity. Consequently, it was made a defensive war and not an offensive war. Others say that jihad is a struggle against the soul to resist the whims. They call it ‘major Jihad’ (al-Jihad al-Akbar) which is preferred over the ‘minor Jihad’ i.e. fighting. Some groups have turned to extremism and harshness by portraying every fighting that occurs between people as a legitimate Jihad, as mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah.
Jihad was once used to represent distinct creedal reality and concept deeply rooted in the minds of the Ummah, who viewed Jihad as a practical method to embody the Islamic thought on the ground reality. However, Jihad has now turned into vulgar and confused idea amongst the current generation. Only the few are concerned to discuss Jihad. The Ummah was overcome by negligence and slackness, which removed fear from the hearts of the enemy. So the zeal of Deen and hatred against the disbelievers waned. They were replaced by the zeal of ignorance, racism and nationalism, such that the Muslims began to hate one another.
These misconceptions have widely spread amongst Muslims. Most of them have missed the pure and distinct understanding of the thought of Jihad, such that the motivation is lost. So, I thought it is necessary to present this intellectual discussion to our Shabab, with the intent of removing suspicions, refuting the slanders and consolidating the importance.
With my exposure to the thought of Jihad and every case of the fighting in its appropriate place, I chose to summarize, as I said, in order not to overburden the listener or reader, with the hardship of following up. I will not spend my time debating and exploring what comes in the books of jurisprudence, knowledge and thinking. In order to clarify what is right and wrong, we must refer to what we have from amongst the strong evidences and detailed explanations that have no doubt or ambiguity around them.
Let us first look at what people in these days say about the subject:
Many of them today divide Jihad into two types: First is a type related to ‘major jihad (jihad al-akbar)’ which is striving against the soul, whims and shaytan and the like. The second is a type related to ‘minor Jihad (jihad al-asghar),’ which is fighting against disbelievers. They cite several evidences for it, amongst them are: the saying of Allah (swt),
(قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُمْ مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ) “Fight those adjacent to you of the disbelievers.” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:123], and the saying of Allah (swt), (وَجَاهِدْهُم بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا) “And strive against them with the Qur’an a great striving.” [TMQ Surah Al-Furqan 25:52], and His saying, (والذين جاهدوا فينا لنهدينهم سبلنا) “And those who strive for Us – We will surely guide them to Our ways.” [TMQ Surah Al-Ankabut 29:69].
The Prophet (saw) said, عدنا من الجهاد الأصغر إلى الجهاد الأكبر، قالوا وما الجهاد الأكبر؟ قال جهاد النفس “We have returned from minor jihad to the major jihad.” They asked: “What is major jihad.” The Prophet (saw) replied, “Jihad against the soul”. In another narration, the Prophet (saw) said,
«قدمْتُم خيرَ مقدَمٍ وقدمْتُم من الجهادِ الأصغرِ إلى الجهادِ الأكبرِ مجاهدةُ العبدِ هواه» “You have marched into a good march from minor jihad to the major jihad, which is a struggle of a servant against his whims.”
I say: it is true that, here, Jihad means struggling against the soul and other than soul, such as struggling against shaytan and corrupters. Nevertheless, such Jihad is not better than Jihad against the disbelievers, nor greater than that in front of Allah (swt). Such struggles do not nullify the Jihad against the disbelievers, nor do they annul it. Instead, Jihad against the disbelievers remains existent until the Day of Judgment. Also Jihad against the soul remains existent until the Day of Judgment.
One must know that the evidence for Jihad against the soul is other than the evidence for Jihad against the disbelievers. Both of them are different from each other. Thus Jihad against the soul is other than Jihad against the disbelievers. It is neither permissible to combine both of them nor to infer evidence for the one to another or to replace one subject over the other. Both of them are indispensable in their place. Both of them are obligatory in their subjects.
Thus, the saying, ‘Jihad against the soul is better and greater amongst Allah than Jihad against disbelievers’ is an incorrect statement. It is the dangerous statement that contradicts the concept of Jihad in the path of Allah, nullifying it. This statement is rejected for reasons:
Firstly: Jihad has two meanings. One of them is a linguistic meaning and the other one is a Sharia meaning, as we have clarified above. Jihad against the soul takes the linguistic meaning and not the Shariah meaning.
Secondly: The evidence which they infer for Jihad against the soul to be greater and better than Jihad against the disbelievers, is not an appropriate evidence for the subject. This is based on the reality of the evidence itself.
As for the hadith which they infer as an evidence for their claim that Jihad is a struggle against the soul and nothing else, being greater and better than Jihad against the disbelievers, it has two considerations:
Firstly: the hadith is rejected by narration (mardood riwayah).
Secondly: the hadith is rejected by meaning (دراية dirayah). As for the hadith being rejected by narration, it is because the hadith is weak.
As for it being rejected by meaning, it is because it contradicts with definitive texts that oblige Jihad in the Path of Allah (swt), establishing it as the greatest amongst the deeds. Definitive texts consist of three categories:
Firstly: the verses that talk about the precedence of Jihad in the path of Allah, saying that it is of the greatest deeds such as the saying of Allah (swt),
(لَّا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً)
“Not equal are those believers remaining [at home] – other than the disabled – and the mujahideen, [who strive and fight] in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred the mujahideen through their wealth and their lives over those who remain [behind], by degrees.” [TMQ Surah An-Nisa’a 4:95]. And the saying of Allah (swt),
(الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللَّهِ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ)
“The ones who have believed, emigrated and striven in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah. And it is those who attain [success].” [TMQ Surah At-Tawab 9:20]
Secondly: the verses that praise Jihad and Mujahideen in the path of Allah. Allah (swt) says,
(إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ)
“Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:111]. And He (swt) says, (إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ) “The believers are only the ones who have believed in Allah and His Messenger and then doubt not but strive with their properties and their lives in the cause of Allah. It is those who are truthful.” [TMQ Surah Al-Hujarat 49:15].
Thirdly: Verses that condemn and threaten the one who abandons jihad, abandons it, and fails to do so. Allah (swt) says,
(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ (38) إِلَّا تَنفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا)
“O you who have believed, what is [the matter] with you that, when you are told to go forth in the cause of Allah, you adhere heavily to the earth? Are you satisfied with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But what is the enjoyment of worldly life compared to the Hereafter except a [very] little (38). If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all.” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:38, 39]. Allah (swt) says,
(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا زَحْفًا فَلَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَارَ (15) وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ)
“O you who have believed, when you meet those who disbelieve advancing [for battle], do not turn to them your backs [in flight]. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day, unless swerving [as a strategy] for war or joining [another] company, has certainly returned with anger [upon him] from Allah, and his refuge is Hell – and wretched is the destination.” [TMQ Surah Al-Anfaal 8:15, 16].
This is in addition to the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (saw) that indicate that Jihad and fighting in the Path of Allah (swt) against the disbeliever is the greatest deed to Allah (swt). The Prophet (saw) said,
«لَغَدْوَةٌ أَوْ رَوْحَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا» “Verily! Setting out in the early morning or in the evening in order to fight in Allah’s way is better than the world and what it contains.” [Bukhari]. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said,«رِبَاطُ يَوْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا» “Observing Ribat (e.g., guarding the Islamic frontier for the sake of Allah) for a single day is far better than the world and all that it contains.” [Tirmidhi]
He (saw) said,
«لا تفعلْ فإِنَّ مُقامَ أحدِكم في سبيلِ اللهِ أفضلُ مِنْ صلاتِهِ في بيتِهِ سبعينَ عامًا ألَا تُحِبُّونَ أنْ يغفِرَ اللهُ لكم ويدْخِلْكُمُ الجنَّةَ ؟ اغزوا في سبيلِ اللهِ مَنْ قاتَلَ في سبيلِ اللهِ فُواقَ ناقَةٍ وجَبَتْ له الجنَّةُ»
“For when any of you remains in God’s path it is more excellent than prayer in his house during seventy years. Do you not want Allah to forgive you and bring you into paradise? Fight in Allah’s path. He who fights in Allah’s path,” and many more.
Thus what is mentioned in the divine texts indicates clearly that Jihad in the Path of Allah is of the greatest deeds and has the highest degree. All these indications (qareenas) indicate that. Praise for performing Jihad, condemnation for abandoning it and the order of reward and punishment all indicate that Jihad in the Path of Allah (swt) is of the greatest and best deeds, not the Jihad against the soul. Accordingly, the hadith is rejected by meaning, due to its contradiction with the definitive texts. It is invalid to claim, with the cited narration, that Jihad against the soul is greater than Jihad against the disbelievers.
It is also falsely promoted that Jihad in Islam is a defensive Jihad and not offensive. The evidences cited include the saying of Allah (swt), (وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا) “And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also]” [TMQ Surah Al-Anfaal 8:61], and the His saying, (وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ) “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.” [TMQ Surah Al-Baqarah 2:190] and His saying, (أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ) “Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory.” [TMQ Surah Al-Hajj 22:39].
I say that such stances against Jihad are also false, rejected and misplaced arguments for the following,
Firstly: the evidence for Jihad is a general evidence and it is absolute, including defensive and offensive wars i.e. it includes the enemy’s initiative in fighting, preventive wars and others. It includes all types of fighting against the enemy due to its generality and absoluteness. Thus specifying Jihad or restricting it to defensive war, excluding offensive war, requires divine text for its specification or restriction. There are no divine texts to specify or restrict it, neither in the Quran nor in the Sunnah. So Jihad remains in its general sense that includes all the wars and fighting against the enemy.
Their inference of the evidence from the verse,(وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا) “And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also]” [TMQ Surah Al-Anfaal 8:61] is an invalid inference. Verses that are similar to this verse are neither appropriate to specify the generality of the verses in Surah Tawba, nor are they to restrict its absoluteness. This is because they are the verses revealed later about Jihad. What preceded them in revelation cannot specify or restrict what was revealed later. There must be a later revealed divine text to specify the general or restrict the absolute of the divine text, or it must be accompanied at the same time, such that there will be differences over one another. As for His saying,
(وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا) “And If they inline to peace” [TMQ Surah Al-Anfaal 8:61], it is during the time of peace. As for His (swt) saying,
(قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ) “Fight those who do not believe” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:29], it is during the time of war and fighting. Peace and fighting are the two existing situations and one situation does not nullify the other.
Secondly: in addition, all these, the sayings and actions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) conclusively indicate that Jihad is the initialization of fighting against the disbelievers to raise the Word of Allah and to spread His Dawah. The Prophet (saw) said,
«أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِذَا فَعَلُوا ذَلِكَ عَصَمُوا مِنِّي دِمَاءَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَّا بِحَقِّ الْإِسْلَامِ وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ»
“I have been commanded (by Allah) to fight people until they testify that there is no true god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and perform Salat and pay Zakat. If they do so, they will have protection of their blood and property from me, except when justified by Islam, and then account is left to Allah.” [Bukhari].
When the Prophet (saw) appointed a leader to the army or detachment, he (saw) would instruct him to fear Allah (swt) himself and consider the welfare of the Muslims who were with him. He (saw) would say,
«اغْزُوَا بسمِ اللَّهِ قَاتَلُوا مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ اغْزُوَا فَلَا تَغُلُّوا وَلَا تَغْدِرُوا وَلَا تَمْثُلُوا وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا وَلِيدًا وَإِذَا لَقِيتَ عَدُوَّكَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَادْعُهُمْ إِلَى ثَلَاثِ خِصَالٍ أَوْ خِلَالٍ فَأَيَّتَهُنَّ مَا أَجَابُوكَ فَاقْبَلْ مِنْهُمْ وَكُفَّ عَنْهُمْ ثُمَّ ادْعُهُمْ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ فَإِنْ أَجَابُوكَ فَاقْبَلْ مِنْهُمْ وَكُفَّ عَنْهُمْ ثُمَّ ادْعُهُمْ إِلَى التَّحَوُّلِ مِنْ دَارِهِمْ إِلَى دَارِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَأَخْبِرْهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ إِنْ فَعَلُوا ذَلِكَ فَلَهُمْ مَا لِلْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَعَلَيْهِمْ مَا عَلَى الْمُهَاجِرِينَ فَإِنْ أَبَوْا أَنْ يَتَحَوَّلُوا مِنْهَا فَأَخْبِرْهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ يَكُونُونَ كَأَعْرَابِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يُجْرَى عَلَيْهِمْ حُكْمُ الله الَّذِي يُجْرَى عَلَيْهِمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ الَّذِي يُجْرَى عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلَا يَكُونُ لَهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ وَالْفَيْءِ شَيْءٌ إِلَّا أَنْ يُجَاهِدُوا مَعَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَإِنْ هم أَبَوا فعلهم الْجِزْيَةَ فَإِنْ هُمْ أَجَابُوكَ فَاقْبَلْ مِنْهُمْ وَكُفَّ عَنْهُمْ فَإِنْ هُمْ أَبَوْا فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَقَاتِلْهُمْ»
“Go forth in Allah’s name in Allah’s path and fight with those who disbelieve in Allah. Go forth and do not be unfaithful regarding booty, or treacherous, or mutilate anyone, or kill a child. When you meet the polytheists who are your enemy summon them to three things, and accept whichever of them they are willing to agree to, and refrain from them. Then summon them to Islam, and if they agree accept it from them and refrain from them. Then summon them to leave their abodes and transfer to the abode of the Emigrants, and tell them that if they do so they will have the same rights and responsibilities as the Emigrants; but if they refuse to transfer from them tell them they will be like the desert Arabs who are Muslims, subject to Allah’s jurisdiction which applies to the believers, but will have no spoil or booty unless they strive with the Muslims. If they refuse demand the jizya from them, and if they agree accept it from them and refrain from them; but if they refuse seek Allah’s help and fight with them.” [Muslim]
As for the actions of the Prophet (saw), plenty of his actions indicate that. Thus his departure to Badr to take the Caravan of Quraish is a departure for fighting. It was his initiative to fight without Quraish who did not initiate fighting the Messenger of Allah (saw) and Muslims or to assault Madinah so that Muslims defend it. His invasion of Hawaizin in the place of Hunain, his siege of Taif, the Battle of Mut’a to fight the Romans and the Battle of Tabuk are enough to establish that Jihad is an initiation of fighting against disbelievers. Thus the claim that Jihad is a defensive war is rejected.
Thirdly: it is a Consensus of the Companions of the Prophet (saw) that Jihad is fighting in the Path of Allah to spread Islam and that it is the initiation of fighting. The sufficient evidence for that is the opening of Iraq, Persia, ash-Sham, Egypt and North Africa. All there were opened during the reign of the Companions with their Consensus.
Thus all what we have mentioned from the evidences are sufficient to silence those who claim that Jihad is a defensive war.
Here we cannot fail to record the feelings of some Muslims when they discuss with their opponents about the subject of Jihad. You would see them incapable to respond to their accusation or to respond against their defamation of Islam, particularly about what is said in the subject of Shariah Jihad. These attackers, including the Orientalists, consider Jihad as a brutal and barbaric idea that involves aggressive and flagrant acts, targeting weak people with the intent of dominating them and converting them to Islam by the sword and coercion!!!
Yes, Muslims are embarrassed about this issue. They are afraid to discuss the matter with their opponents. If they do speak with the intention to respond, they negate and contradict the original idea, as they claim that Allah (swt) has legislated Jihad only for defending oneself and the identity. This is what we have explained above.
As for refuting the slanders from the biased disbelievers and those who favor them, we say: bearing the sword to fight against the disbelievers and their ideologies does not mean to coerce them, by force, to adopt Islam as they claim. In fact, Allah (swt) prevented such coercion and He (swt) did not permit it, as He (swt) says,
(لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ)
“There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.” [TMQ Surah Al-Baqarah 2:256].
This divine text clarifies that bearing the sword against disbelievers is not for the sake of coercing them to adopt Islam by force. Instead, it is to purify the earth from their disbelieving systems and their tyranny against the people. Thus, sword is for the sake of application and implementation of Islam and not to coerce people to adopt Islam. In other words, it is for the sake of ruling the people with the Shariah of Allah (swt), liberating them from the ruling of humans. After that, people have a choice to choose between Iman and disbelief.
Here, I do not want to expand much in responding to the accusation of coercion and compelling. It is a flimsy accusation and does not require much care and attention from us. It is sufficient to respond to the slanders and false claims of these foolish people that we refute them with the facts and testimonies brought by history written in the honest books. The greatest evidence for that is the reality of Christians and Jews, who lived under the shade of the Islamic State. They lived there as a people of Dhimmah. They acknowledge that they were not oppressed for the sake of their religions. No one claimed that they were coerced to adopt Islam by force. Instead, most of them are on the religions of their forefathers since the Islamic Khilafah until now. So where is this compulsion and coercion to leave their religion and what they believe? Where is the oppressive inquisition stance like what we have heard from the Christian world?
We say to our brothers that we see no rationale for this embarrassment, particularly Islam declares it openly without hiding it from the people as Allah (swt) says,
(يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ)
“O Prophet, urge the believers to battle.” [TMQ Surah Al-Anfaal 8:65].
Then, why is there an embarrassment, whilst the capitalist ideology openly discusses colonization and considers it as a positive method to spread its ideology? It is sufficient for you to bear witness of what was inflicted upon the Muslims from the disbelieving colonial states in terms of raids and attacks which they committed upon the peoples of the Islamic world. For instance, the people of Libya, Sudan, Iraq, Kashmir, Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya and others. The same applies to the socialist ideology, including the communist ideology, which sees revolutions, unrest and civil wars as a positive method to spread its ideology and to accelerate the paradigm shift amongst the peoples of the world. The people of these two ideologies see no embarrassment to proclaim it and they claim that they are rendering a great service to mankind. On the other hand, we as Muslims exclude Islam from this circle and we leave Islam imprisoned within the Islam regions and we do not work to spread it to the world because it embarrasses others!
We do not see any justification for this rejected avoidance except the negligence to carry the Dawah, to raise the word of Allah and the abandoning to liberate mankind from servitude just as Rubay bin Aamir (ra) clarified in his discussion with Rustom, in which he said,
“إن الله ابتعثنا لنخرج من شاء من عبادة العباد إلى عبادة الله ومن ضيق الدنيا إلى سعتها، ومن جور الأديان إلى عدل الإسلام، فأرسلنا بدينه إلى خلقه لندعوهم إليه، فمَن قَبلَ ذلك قبلنا منه ورجعنا عنه ومن أبى قاتلناه أبداً حتى نقضي إلى موعود الله”
“Allah (swt) has sent us to deliver you from worshiping the creation to worshiping the Creator of the creation and to deliver you from the constriction of this world to the vastness of this world and the afterlife and from the oppression of the religions to the justice of Islam. Allah (swt) has sent us with His religion to His creations to invite them to it. If they accept, we will accept them and we will leave; and if they refuse we fight them until we get the promise of Allah.”
However, what can we say to those defeatists who want to desecrate the honor of this honorable Ummah, which was raised upon the teachings and guidance of Islam, with what they foolishly claim of tolerance and dialogue with the disbelieving enemy? This stance is itself a stance of hypocrites, who abstained from Jihad, as Allah (swt) says,
(وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ ۖ فَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِيِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَأَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ)
“Those who believe say, “Why has a surah not been sent down? But when a precise surah is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is hypocrisy looking at you with a look of one overcome by death.” [TMQ Surah Muhamad 47:20].
They are those who wish to buy the wrath of Allah upon them, in exchange of the pleasure of disbelievers with them. Allah (swt) says,
(ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُوا مَا أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ)
“That is because they followed what angered Allah and disliked [what earns] His pleasure, so He rendered worthless their deeds.” [TMQ Surah Muhammad 47:28].
The vileness of the rulers and their aides have gone to the extent of exaggerating and flattering the disbelievers by claiming that the disbelievers are brothers in religion! I wish the matter would stop at the treacherous rulers and their followers without spreading more than that. Instead, some of those who are affiliated with Muslims from amongst the suspicious movements follow them in this malicious conspiracy. For example, we, regarding the Islamic community in diaspora, the disbelieving West seeks to contain us through such movements that are active in the arena. Meetings, conferences and lectures are constantly being held here and there to convince Muslims to remove the idea of opposing the disbelievers from their minds, whilst accepting the idea of lower-level dialogue. We have seen a magazine issued by the Swiss Muslim League in which its authors claimed that the Jihad carried out by the Muslims in the past against the disbelievers was nothing but an unfortunate clash. The author of the article, Dr. Ezz El-Din Ibrahim, says in his article entitled, “Islamic view on Muslim-Christian dialogue,” in which he says, “…Muslims continued this dialogue verbally and in writing, hardly inventing about it except during the periods of unfortunate clash between followers of the two religions…” What this means is that these negligent people see themselves as more civilized than the righteous predecessors, who used to understand Jihad as the initiation of fighting against the disbelievers. With this negative logic, they want to neglect the saying of Allah (swt),
(يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ)
“O Prophet, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.” [TMQ Surah At-Tawba 9:73].
Moreover, Allah (swt) sent Muhammad (saw) to the whole world as He (swt) says,
(وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ )
“And We have already written in the book [of Psalms] after the [previous] mention that the land [of Paradise] is inherited by My righteous servants.  Indeed, in this [Qur’an] is notification for a worshiping people.  And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” [TMQ Surah Al-Anbiyyah 21:105,106,107] i.e. Allah (swt) sent His Prophet (saw) as a mercy to the worlds, such that he liberates them from the darkness of ignorance and from the dominant of Taghut. This is what the Mujahideen clarify to different rulers upon the earth, when they march forth towards them to liberate humanity from the shackles of enslavement. So is there any mercy after this to guide mankind that equates with it? How come these ignorant people want to neglect it?
O Muslims! Know that Jihad remains existent until the Day of Judgment. Neither the justice of a just man nor the oppression of the oppressor can nullify it. If we, the generation of this current time, fail in this, then Allah (swt) will send men after us who would love Allah (swt) and Allah (swt) will love them. They will fulfill the covenant given to Allah (swt) by marching out for Jihad in the Path of Allah (swt). With the permission of Allah (swt), the armies of Islam will set out again to march on the ground in the direction of Rome and France, as well as Britain, the head of unbelief, and they will reach the White House just as Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas reached the court of Khusrov. Allah (swt) says,
(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ ذَٰلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ)
“O you who have believed, whoever of you should revert from his religion – Allah will bring forth [in place of them] a people He will love and who will love Him humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers; they strive in the cause of Allah and do not fear the blame of a critic. That is the favor of Allah; He bestows it upon whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.” [TMQ Surah Al-Ma’ida 5:54].
(Translated from Arabic)
Al-Waie Magazine 156, Muharram 1421 AH, April 2000 CE
Khalid Ibrahim al-Amraoui