The Industrial Revolution 4.0 was proclaimed as the world agenda at the 2016 World Economic Forum, no wonder it became a major influx in many Muslim countries. Starting from the 1.0 industrial revolution that developed in the mid-18th century where the emergence of steam engines replaced animals at that time made very drastic changes, especially for the world economy. Continued with the industrial revolution 2.0 which was marked by the emergence of electric power plants and combustion chamber motors. This discovery triggered the emergence of telephones, cars, airplanes, etc. that significantly changed the face of the world. The mid-80s to the early 2000s became a marker of the emergence of the third industrial revolution, until now entering the 4.0 industrial revolution where internet IT development and even artificial intelligence became something that was no longer a mere dream.
But all these technological advances unfortunately are fully controlled by foreigners whose main driver is capitalistic principle, namely KBE (knowledge-based economy). The Muslim world is only becoming objects and markets. The universities researches in Muslim countries also held to serve foreign industries which are actually owned by the capitalist Kuffar.
Research productivity always in line with the industrial needs that require high innovation. Thus, it does make sense that universities in the Muslim world are difficult to penetrate the world’s top 100 rankings since almost all Muslim countries have been experiencing DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION on a large scale, while the West had been through the phase of industrialization over 150 years ago. Whereas one of requirements for a state said to be able to master science and technology is if it capable in forming ability of research leading to the solving of the problems faced by the state, as well as capable in forming an industrial system applying the research results.
While ironically, since the Khilafah was destroyed, the Muslim world was quite satisfied in the position of “workers” and “consumers” of mass-marketed products and technology services, which flooding the Muslim countries. This article will discuss how the vision of Islam is carried out by the Khilafah state in mastering science and technology in today’s digital era. The vision and paradigm that has long been forgotten by Muslims themselves.
VISION AND STRATEGY OF THE KHILAFAH STATE
The paradigm of a state in Islam is to protect and maintain the soul, mind, religion, religion, wealth, glory, security and the state. Therefore, all educational and industrial politics will be synergized to realize what is called these maqashidus sharia, as explain below:
A. Strategy in Building the State’s Ability in Mastery of Knowledge and Technology
The first strategy is linked to the construction of three (3) sub-systems that support the state’s ability to master the highest knowledge.
1- Building a visionary education system from the level of primary, secondary to tertiary of higher education where philosophy and scientific tradition are sourced only from the Islamic Aqeedah, so the quality of leader-minded and Mukmin integrity generation will be born, with a variety of skills and areas of expertise.
2- Building a system of research and development (R & D), that is the ability of integrated research both from the state research institutes, departments, and from universities; where all are controlled, encouraged, and fully funded by the state.
3- Building a strategic industrial system owned and managed independently by the state and based on the up-to-date military requirements and the fulfillment of basic needs of the people. The independence of industry including the ability to control, manage and ensure the security of supply of the important aspects of the industry, namely: raw materials, technology, expertise, engineering, finance, the ability to form a complete industrial chain, as well as policy.
In term of education, the Islamic Khilafah with its foreign politics line and diplomacy strategy will proactively cooperate with countries other the enemy ones. It could be exchange of teaching staffs and delegations between the two countries in spreading the culture and language to each other. The principles of international agreements of the Khilafah in Education are as follows : [i]
1- The Khilafah implements curriculum of education with certain policy to shape the shakhsiyyah Islamiyah (Islamic Personality)
2- The Islamic Sharia enables the teaching and learning activities in the framework of developing knowledge that benefits the Ummah and the world
3- The Khilafah could make agreement to bring teachers and lecturers in the field of experimental sciences from abroad because a teacher is tied to the state curriculum and should not deviate from it
4- It is forbidden to make an agreement which content is allowing other countries to spread wrong ideas and ideology, or open private schools among the Muslim Ummah
5- It is forbidden to bind agreement which content is requiring the Khilafah to be bound by any program which is not in accordance with the education policies that must be hold firmly
In terms of the industrial system, industry is directed to be able to overcome all the needs of the people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, also able to meet the vital needs of the State, and be able to shape the country’s independence with the following principles:
1- Industrial systems running on a foundation of Islamic economic system in terms of investment and ownership principles. Islam stipulates that a number of natural resources cannot be owned by individuals, privates, let alone foreigners. Ownership belongs to the entire ummah. The state becomes the manager to provide maximum benefits for the people.
2- The vital industrial sector must be controlled by the state, such as agriculture, pharmacy, energy, transportation, infrastructure, and so on. All industrial development must be built into the paradigm of independence. There should not be the slightest opportunity that would make us dependent on the kuffar, both in terms of technology (through licensing rules), the economy (through loan rules or export-import) and politics. وَلَن يَجْعَلَ اللّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلاً “…and never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them]. (An Nisa: 141)
3- The industry is not export-oriented, if at the same time for various basic needs of the people must import,
4- Industry is also built on the basis of da’wa and jihad strategies, both defensive and offensive, both non-physical and physical. All existing industries must be able to be modified to provide the need for jihad when needed. The industry of heavy equipment which at the time of peace will make trains or kitchen utensils, during the war must be able to be quickly transformed into an industrial tank or automatic rifle.
B. Strategy in Taking Knowledge from Other Civilizations
1- Cooperation of Knowledge, Science, and Technology with the Kufr Mu’ahid States
Agreement in the field of science and technology is allowed absolutely, because Islamic law does allow for it. Therefore, such cooperation is permitted depend on the form of cooperation, while continuing to observe the international political scenario.
2- The State Submits Groups of Scientists to Seek Knowledge in Specific Country
It is the state with its political line that will send groups of scientists to study abroad for strategic interests of the Khilafah State. So when the Khalifah saw that in order to enhance jihad against the superpower Roman required a strong navy, he sent delegations of Muslim Ummah to learn the techniques of shipbuilding, navigation with astronomy and compass, gunpowder, and so on. And for this they must learn to China – who was first to know the compass or gunpowder- then they went there, even if the journey was hard, and they must learn several foreign languages.
3- Hiring Foreign Scientists to Teach the Muslim Ummah
In certain political situation, some intelligence measures may be taken, especially when dealing with enemy countries of the Islamic Khilafah, as in times of Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih (1453 M) where attempts were made to set free a prisoner Orban, an expert, engineer, cannon-maker, from prison of Constantinople. He was imprisoned by Emperor Constantine to prevent him to be employed by the Uthmani military power. Long story short, with serious steps Orban were freed and came before Sultan Al-Fatih. He was then employed with a salary of tens of times higher than when he worked in Constantinople. Finally, a huge cannon was made, which is the most advanced at that time.
Rebuilding the glory of Islam is possible to do by the Islamic world if they are united as a civilization to become a “new power” in the world political scene. The Muslim Ummah will soon be back to lead the world civilization and technological development, if the quality of their generation immediately is redirected to be the generation of leaders. Because the Muslim countries have an enormous power of human resources and natural resources, which, if united under the shade of the Khilafah, no country or nation can match.
This will necessarily answer the dependence of Muslim Ummah on technology from Western countries. The politics of monopoly of knowledge conducted by the West will be faced by the Muslim Ummah with the independence and strength of vision of their ideology. And slowly but surely, the position will change. It is the West that will become dependent on the Islamic Khilafah. Inshaa Allah
Wallahu A’lam bi-Suwab
Member of Central Media Office of Hizb ut Tahrir
[i] Iyad Hilal, Perjanjian-perjanjian Internasional Dalam Pandangan Islam, Pustaka Thariqul Izzah